Monday, 26 May 2014

British Trade Dollar

Descriptions
Obverse : Britannia standing helmeted looking to left with her right hand grasps a trident and her left hand resting on an oval sheild bearing the united cross of St. George of England, St. Andrew of Scotland and St. Patrick of Ireland surrounded by a Chinese scroll-pattern border. A sailing ship is in the distance with the denomination "ONE DOLLAR" above and year date below.

Reverse : in the centre between the denominations was a Chinese labyrinth, one of the many variations of the Chinese character "" for longevity encircled by 4 compartments containing Chinese characters for ‘One Dollar’ " " and Malay Jawi characters  "ساتو  ريڠڬيت"; all encircled by a Chinese scroll border.





Technical Specifications
Denomination: 1 dollar
Issued by : Straits Settlements
Year : 1895 - 1935
Diameter : 39 mm
Thickness : 1.9 mm
Weight : 26.9568 grams
Coin Shape : Round
Composition : .900 Silver
Coin Edge : Milled
Engraver : George William de Saulles



History
When China lost the opium war also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars in 1839-1843 and 1856-1860, they're force to open up a number of ports to British trade and residence, and Cede Hong Kong to Britain. At the same time, Straits Settlements were established to link the now-defunct British East India Company's outposts of Penang, Malacca and Singapore. By the middle of the nineteenth century, international trade in Hong Kong and Straits Settlements start to flourished with merchants and adventurers flocked that areas.

Large Foreign silver trade dollar were used for payment before the introduction of an acceptable British Trade coins in Hong Kong and Straits Settlements. Mexican silver dollar-8 reales, United States trade dollar, the Japanese trade dollar and the French "Piastre de Commerce" are some of the common trade dollars used. These .900 fine silver trade dollars were then circulated throughout the East where they were readily accepted as a medium of exchange.

It became necessary to produce special dollar for trading in the British Colony. When price of silver rise rapidly in 1875 to 1895, it disturb trading and resulted a very serious shortage of minted dollars. To overcome the shortage, approval was given in 1894 by a Royal Prerogative of the English sovereign for the minting of a special British Dollar for general use in Far Eastern Trade.

To make sure the new trade dollar can be accepted by countries outside British dominion, learning from the Portcullis Money mistake, the coin had been given an Eastern look. The only British character of the coin is Britannia ( posed by Lady Susan Hiks-Beach for engraver G.W. De Saulles ) standing helmeted looking to left with her right hand grasps a trident and her left hand resting on an oval sheild bearing the united cross of St. George of England, St. Andrew of Scotland and St. Patrick of Ireland surrounded by a Chinese scroll-pattern border on the obverse. A sailing ship is in the distance with the denomination "ONE DOLLAR" above and year date below.

On the reverse, in the centre between the denominations was a Chinese labyrinth, encircled by 4 compartments containing Chinese characters for "Yi Yuan" and Malay Jawi characters for for ‘One Dollar’ " " and Malay Jawi characters  "ساتو  ريڠڬيت"; all encircled by a Chinese scroll border.

The British Trade dollar was declared legal tender on 2 February 1895 by an Order of Council in the Straits Settlements, Hong Kong and Labuan (off the north-west coast of British North Borneo).

Three mints participated in the minting of the coins:
·Bombay Mint with the mint mark "B", located in the center prong of the trident.
·Calcutta Mint with the mint mark "C", can be found in the ground between the left foot of Britannia and the base of the shield.
·Royal Mint, London, Those with no mint mark.

The coin had a diameter of 39 mm and was struck in 26.95 grams (416 grains) of 0.900 fine silver. The dies were prepared by London Royal Mint engraver G W De Saulles.

The 1934B and 1935B dollars were struck and shipped to Hong Kong. They were deposited in the vaults of a Hong Kong Bank as security against the dollar banknotes introduced in Hong Kong in 1935. Only few pieces of 1934B and 1935B dollars were released. The reminder of the 1934B and 1935B dollars were returned to the Mint for melting before World War II. The 1921B dollar was struck but never released for circulation.

Although it was minted till 1935, the British dollar were demonetized with effect from 31st August 1904 in Straits Settlements. All Foreign silver dollar which were in circulation were replaced with the new Straits Dollars by Straits Settlements (coinage) order of 1903. It continued to remain as legal tender in Hong Kong until 1937, at the outbreak of the second Sino-Japanese War of 1937-45.


Mintage
Year
Bombay Mint
Calcutta Mint
Royal Mint
1895
3,316,036
nil
unknown
1896
6,135,617
nil
nil
1897
21,286,427
nil
unknown
1898
21,545,564
nil
unknown
1899
30,743,159
nil
nil
1900
9,106,619
unknown
363,372
1901
25,684,971
1,513,685
nil
1902
30,404,499
1,266,618
nil
1903
3,955,647
nil
nil
1904
648,847
nil
nil
1907
1,945,726
nil
nil
1908
6,870,741
nil
nil
1909
5,954,218
nil
nil
1910
5,552,910
nil
nil
1911
37,470,509
nil
nil
1912
5,672,075
nil
nil
1913
1,566,693
nil
nil
1921
50,211
nil
nil
1925
nil
nil
6,869,853
1929
5,100,036
nil
nil
1930
nil
nil
6,664,865
1930
10,401,032
nil
nil
1934
17,335,205
nil
nil
1935
6,811,995
nil
nil



Source :
http://www.obsoletecoin.com/2013/07/british-trade-dollar-istory.html


Spannish Dollar

DESCRIPTION


Obverse : CAROLUS III DEI GRATIA 1776 "Charles III by the Grace of God, 1776". 
Right profile of Charles III in toga with laurel wreath.







Reverse : HISPAN[IARUM] ET IND[IARUM] REX M[EXICO] 8 R[EALES] F M "King of the Spains and the Indies, Mexico [City Mint] 8 reales". 
Crowned Spanish arms between the Pillars of Hercules adorned with PLVS VLTRA ( Latin : Plus ultra, “further beyond” ) motto.




TECHNICAL FEATURES
 Country : Mexico
Years : 1772 – 1789
Value : 8 reals
Metal : .917 Silver
Weight : 27.07 g
Diameter : 40mm
Shape : round


HISTORY
The real de a ocho, also known as the Spanish dollar, the eight-real coin, or the piece of eight (Spanish : peso de ocho), is a silver coin, worth eight reales, that was minted in the Spanish Empire after a Spanish currency reform in 1497. 

The Spanish dollar was widely used by many countries as international currency because of its uniformity in standard and milling characteristics.  

The coin was minted with several different designs at various mints in Spain and the New World.  The main New World mints for Spanish dollars were at Potosí, Lima, and Mexico, with minor mints at Bogotá, Cartegena, Cuzco, Guatemala, La Plata, Panama, Popayan, Santo Domingo and Santiago.   

The 12 mints produced a total of 5 types of silver coins : pillar, shield, pillar and waves, milled pillar, and milled bust.
pillar
shield
pillars and waves
milled pillars
milled bust



Because it was widely used in Europe, the Americas, and the Far East, it became the first world currency by the late 18th century.  Millions of Spanish dollars were minted over the course of several centuries. They were among the most widely circulating coins of the colonial period in the Americas, and were still in use in North America and in South-East Asia in the 19th century.

Some countries countersigned the Spanish dollar so it could be used as their local currency.  The Spanish dollar was the coin upon which the original United States dollar was based, and it remained legal tender in the United States until the Coinage Act of 1857.  Aside from the U.S. dollar, several other existing currencies, such as the Canadian dollar, the Japanese yen, the Chinese yuan, the Philippine peso, as well as several currencies in Latin America, were initially based on the Spanish dollar and other 8-real coins.

The Spanish dollar was often cut into 8 ‘bits’ to make change.  Each bit equivalent to 1 real ; 2 bits is a quarter of a dollar.



         MINTAGE
year
variety
F M
M F
F F
1772



1773



1774



1775



1776



1777



1778



1779



1780



1781



1782



1783



1784



1785



1786



1787



1788



1789



      


Source
http://www.newworldtreasures.com/cointypes.htm